- a way to gain an understanding of your reasons and beliefs.
- A way to express reasoning
- Set of reasons for a conclusion.
- Not verbal fights, abuse, complaints, disagreements.
“Argument is an intellectual process, where you express your opinion/view and give reasons for it.”
Purpose of arguments
- To convince/persuade you (to buy something).
- To give a reason/justification for your belief.
- To explain something and to increase understanding.
- Causal (cause)
- Teleological (goal)
Arguments are made out of language. Language is
Language acts at three level
- Linguistic - is just the utterance of a meaningful sentence.
- Speech - occurs even if the intended effect does not occur.
- Conversational - is the bringing about of an effect.
- Meaningful sentence using syntax and semantics of the language.
- Can be a promise or a threat.
The thereby test If I say, “I <something>” then I thereby <something>.
- Is bringing about the intended effect, which is the standard effect of the speech act speaker is performing.
- The effect has to occur for it be conversational act.
- Quantity - say the right amount, not too much, not too little
- Quality - don’t say what you don’t believe or don’t have reason to believe
- Manner - be orderly, be brief, avoid obscurity, avoid ambiguity.