Modern World - History of Last 250 years

Diffusion of authority
  • Authority comes From
    • Knowledge
      • Printing press help spread knowledge breaking through traditional barriers.
    • Force
    • Money
  • In traditional world authority sources were distinct.
  • Anyone in europe could acquire one or more sources of authority.
Democratic revolutions
  • By 1700s europe already had constitued orders in many regions.
    • Parlement, city council, local courts.
    • All power was not vested in the king and handful of people.
  • Aristrocracy consisted of - nobles, priests, wealthy families.
  • Democratic revolutions were against the Aristrocracy, an exclusive club of powerful families.

The 18th century democratic revolutions were against the possession of power by any established, exclusive clubs. These revolutions were mainly to provide socio-economic mobility to every one.

These United States
  • Given that US colonies were established newly, they did not have any constitued order.
  • Most colonists were bypassed when king of England enforced his will on them.
  • Raising taxes, implementing trade agreements and so on.
  • Colonists feel they have lost their rights as englishmen.
  • Liberty
    • Free thinking.
    • Rule of laws.
French revolution - why it failed
  • Rapid inflation.
  • Weakend monarchy.
  • Nationalization of catholic church.
French republic
  • The first republic
    • The birth of political terror
      • For the first time hundred were murdered for political reason.
    • Monoism - one nation should have one voice.
    • Commitee of public safety.
    • A nation in arms - everyone has to choose side and fight.
  • Second republic - bourgeois republic
    • Middle class republic, led by Napolean
  • Napolean replaces republic to a consulate.
Democratic revolution around the world.
  • Influence of french and french revolution was spreading across Europe.
  • Aristrocracy is being challenged everywhere.
  • In America
    • Supporter of french revolution - led by Thomas Jefferson
    • Opposers - Federalists.
  • Tipu Sultan is influenced by French Revolution.
  • Left wing, right wing, reactionary - new political terms
  • Slave revolt in French West Indies.

Counter Revolution