Science Of Exercise

Fitness and performance

Endurance training
  • When you regularly exercise, body will adapt. 3-5 times a week, for few months.
  • Adaptations depend on - frequency, intensity, duration, and type of exercise.
  • Frequency
    • Don’t be a weekend warrior when it comes to exercise.
    • 3 to 5 days a week is ideal.
  • Intensity is most important when it comes to adaptations.
    • Use heart rate monitors.
    • Intensity should be 50-85% of heart rate reserves.
    • (heart rate reserve/100) * (max HR 210 - resting HR) + Rest HR
    • Max HR = 220 - age
    • For me to train at 85% HR reserve: 85%/100 * (220 - 37 - 66) + 66 = 165 bpm
    • For me to train at 85% HR reserve: 50%/100 * (220 - 37 - 66) + 66 = 125 bpm
  • Duration
    • 20 to 60 mins of exercise.
  • Type or mode
    • Should involve large muscle groups.
  • A training program should have
    • Designated recovery days.
    • Designated hard training weeks, followed by recovery weeks.
    • Start with low intensity, lower duration and gradually increase both.
What happens when you stop training.
  • Reversibility - all adaptations will be reversed with time once you stop training.
  • Reversal of various adaptations is quite fast and will occur within weeks after training is stopped.
Strengh training
  • Strength training adaptations depend on - frequency, intensity, number of repetitions per set, and number of sets.
  • After a period of strength training, output plateaus, factors affecting it
    • Physical activity
    • Nutrition
    • Genetics
    • Endocrine influences
    • Nervous system
    • Environmental.
    • Growth hormones such as testosterone.

Strength training adaptations

Strength training over time

Differences for men and women in strength training.
  • Men have more muscles and larger cross sectional areas.
  • A man and a woman having same muscle mass can generate same amount of power and force.
  • Due to very large quantities of testosterone (20-30 times), amount of muscle gain in men can be much higher.
Nutrition for training
  • How much to eat?
    • Endurance - weight stable.
  • What to eat?
    • Endurance
      • Increasing carb stores.
      • 55-60% calories from carbs.
  • When?
    • Takes 24 hours to replenish carb stores.
    • First 1 to 2 hours post exercise.
    • Pre-competition meal -
      • 2 to 3 hours prior - reduces blood requirements of digestive system and stabilizes glucose level
      • 300-500 calories, high in carbs.
Causes Of Muscle fatigue
  • Muscle fatigue is inability to maintain output required during exercise.
  • Common causes are located in the muscle itself.
  • For Endurance exercise
    • Depletion of carb stores.
    • Calcium levels
    • Body and muscle temperature.
Causes of muscle soreness
  • During prolonged isometric contraction, blood flow to the muscle can be shut down, reducing oxygen flow.
  • This results in creating ATP anaerobically, producing acids. These acids when released into blood stream cause localized burning and pain, which subsided quickly.
  • Cramps - no clear reasons are yet established.
    • Theory 1 - electrolyte imbalance.
    • Theory 2 - bug in neural wiring.
    • Can be solved using salts, fluids, massage and ice packs.
  • Muscle soreness which starts hours after the exercise is caused by eccentric contraction, when muscle is stretched.
  • These contractions causes micro tears in the muscle fibers leading to inflammation, weakness, tenderness, and pain.
  • Damaged sarcomere (muscle tissues) are replaced with healthy.
  • Subsequent exercise with same intensity with cause lesser pain.
Performance enhancing drugs
  • Blood doping - inject your blood cells before a competition.