- Slaves are revolting Saint domingue(Haiti) and Buenos Aires.
- British losses in Americas start to mount, which makes them look eastward.
- French, Napolean, wants to establish French colonies in North America.
- New orleans was the key port for United States.
- Napolean loses Saint domingue.
- Instead of continuing his North America expedition, he focuses on conquering Europe.
- Louisiana purchase
- Shifts american settlement westward.
- Population start increasing.
- Creates robust economy.
- Ends Spanish rule in north america.
- Napolean dissolves the french republic and announces himself as emperor.
- Starts expanding French empire across European mainland, up to Tuscany and Russia.
- A holy alliance, led by Russian Tsars, defeats Napolean at Waterloo ending the Napoleanic wars.
- The holy alliance restores Europe to Christian values.
- The holy alliance was against republics, liberalism, revolutions.
- There is tension, some riots, between traditional values established by holy alliance and liberal republicans in Europe.
End of Spanish America
- Ethinic grouping of spanish american
- very small, < 1%, Spanish immigrants. - Pennisulares
- Small, 20%, descendents of white settlers with pure European bloodlines. - Creoles
- 40% - mixed descendents of European settlers and native Indian or slave Blacks. - Mullates
- Rest Black Slaves or native Indians.
- Napolean deposes Spanish king, installing his brother as King of Spain.
- Spanish colonies start revolting, as nominal royal power is left.
- Defeat of Napolean, restores Spanish Kingdom, revolutions in colonies are defeated as well.
- Spanish kingdom adopts more liberal outlook, is invaded by French and the holy alliance.
- Second round of revolutions begin in latin america.
- Mexico - lead by conservative elites. Rest led by creole elite.
- America and Britain advise rest of the Europe to not meddle in these revolutions.
- Spanish rules is overthrown in most of america, giving rise to authoritarin dictatorships.
- Mexico has series of wars, finally losing to America and losing its land in new mexico, california, texas.
- Main powrs Maratha, East India company , Mysore.
- East India company is focused on plunder, leaving Bengal poor and financially weak.
- England takes over administration of Bengal, reforming justice and order.
- This helps rich Bengalis to keep their financial dominance.
- Bengal becomes massive financial powerhouse which can finance war for rest of India.
- Marathas, powerful millitary, but financially weak, with lot of infighting.
- Finally British defeat Mysore and Marathans bringing most of India directly under their rule.
World of 1830
- Move back to traditional values.
- Peace and need of peace.
- National identities.
- Christian churches gaining importance once again in Europe.