World transformations (1820-1870)
- Both western europe and wealthy Asia (China) are similar
- Scientific discoveries.
- Strong economies.
- Large population centres.
- Western europe however has
- Large trade network.
- Access to resources in north and south america.
- They break the malthusian trap using technology.
After 1820 Europe and Americas GDP start increasing dramatically and by 1870 they are dominant economies in the world, dwarfing Asia.
- Wealth pouring into Western Europe, created a rich upper middle class, which valued education.
- Number of universities and importance of them was growing.
- Printing press enabled to publish knowledge and create communities of readers around such knowledge.
- Industries, specially mining and shipping, provided opportunities to tinkerers, including financial sponsorship to solve problems faced by these industries.
- A vast global network of trade also meant a global network of knowledge.
- All this enabled Western Europe to lead technology discoveries.
Influence of Technology
- With steam engines, rail road, and telegraph, population demographic started showing significant changes.
- Due to rail road, it was possible to transport labour and goods inland without relying on rivers.
- This opened up vast areas of north america, australia to farming.
- Steam boats also meant the transportation of goods and labour over water was much more cost effective.
- Western Europe, North America, Australia grew rapidly.
- Spread of Christiantiy to Asia, Latin America and Africa.
- Due to protectionism in England, India loses its textile manufacturing industry.
- Wahabism takes root in Arabia, winning some land.
- Muslim brotherhoods are formed.
- Ottoman empire defeats Egypt and keeps control of the empire.
- Safavids in Iran are defeated with a new dynasty.
- Islam starts spreading into Africa, specially West Africa.
- Europeans are restricted to coastal areas of Africa, due to diseases affecting them.
- Suez canal is opened.
- Russian empires expands to pacific ocean and Alaska, is now threatning to expand to North America
Pacific World and Far East
- America expands out to the pacific coast, blocks way for any other european power to enter North America.
- Europeans start expanding into the southeast Asian islands and pacific islands.
- Growth in Australia makes expansion into the near by regions possible and profitable.
- China loses Opium wars giving footholds to British in China.
- Japan opens up trade with North America.
- Indonesia, malaysia are increasingly influenced by Muslim brotherhoods.