Modern World - History of Last 250 years

Nation States

National Identities
  • Revolutions in transportation, manufacturing led to start of urbanization.
  • Traditional World
    • Local identities
    • Local languages
    • Local customs
  • A need for national identities as people from different communities started cohabiting ever growing number of cities.
  • Italy unified as a pan Italian empire.
  • Prussia unified by Bismarck as a german speaking nation, defeated France.
  • National identities started emerging.
  • Start of public schooling system in many European countries.
Global and local collisions
  • As local communities interact with Europeans they either fight, adapt, or become part of the European forces.
  • Rebellion in China.
    • A chinese christian converts starts a rebellion against emperor.
    • Europeans side with empre and eventually defeat the rebellion.
    • Leads to reforms in the empire.
  • Britain invades new zealand, wars with Maori population.
  • Siam adapts
    • Siamese king adapts to Western culture.
    • Manages to keep Siam independent.
  • Indian mutiny in 1857
    • Indian army, which is Indian men and English officers, revolts.
    • They are joined by a host of princes.
    • The mutiny is defeated.
    • British India goes through a set of reforms.
    • East India company is abolished.
    • Britain starts employing Indians in a national service to rule over the subcontinent.
    • Indian army is the biggest European force which is mostly Indian men.
  • Japan starts westernizing.
    • A new emperor, Meiji, takes over.
    • He is more open to western ideas.
    • Allied with western powers he defeats various rebels who wants to keep traditional values.
    • Japan starts seeing newspapers, universities.
  • US Civil war
    • The values of south and north US conflict.
    • It is not just about slavery, but about traditional values, rights versus rights of a nation state.
    • South is defeated and slavery is abolished in US.
Rise of liberalism
  • Slavery is abolished everywhere.
  • Individual liberties are becoming more and more important.
  • France goes through another revolution where power of the catholic church is challenged.
  • Bismarck establishes German empire and has conflicts with catholic church.
  • In Europe nation states are fighting with church over the control of public institutions, such as schools, courts.
  • Russia abolishes serfdom bonded labour, which is a form of slavery.
  • Idea of nation state becomes very important, constitutions are adopted by most states.
  • Darwinism leads to racism, where everything thinks they are the most adapted, englightned race.
What is 19th century liberalism?
  • Free trade - they are against state monopolies.
  • They are against mob rule and powerful tyrants.
  • Inviduals bond together to start cooperative societities, economic, social, political.
    • These societities provide socio-economic support to its members.
  • Start of womens rights movements with publication of a book by John Stuart Mill.
  • Separation of church and state, challenging state control over church.

It is easier for people to bond over things they hate, than things they love.

Enemies of liberalism
  • Catholic church reorganizes, focusing on working class, social catholic church.
  • Protectionism - some countries implement trade restrictions, which goes against free trade principles.
  • Socialist
    • Branch of liberalism which is focused on rights of a group over individual liberties.
    • Marxism - which focuses on tangible benefits as a result of rights, such as better wages, working conditions.
  • Big business - which is also being seen as a form of tyranny.
  • Mass narratives - with rise of cheap popular press it is easy to spread ideas, mass narratives.
  • New type of conservatism - nationalism
    • As nation state becomes the central power, who are its citizens?
    • National identities are discussed and become central debates.
    • Race, language all become important ways to assign identities.
    • Countries are now fighting to keep their national identities.
    • Free trade falls apart as they try to protect themselves.
    • National unity becomes more important than liberal values.
    • Jim Crow laws reestablishes slavery in US.
  • Rise of racism
    • People are making up ideas by looking at skulls of various ethnic groups.